Marquita Adams, consumer, Alexandria VA.
Chris Brown, consumer, Aurora OH.
FDA: “Additional Information about High-Intensity Sweeteners Permitted for Use in Food in the United States.”
Sweeteners: “Sugar Alcohols as Sugar Substitutes in Food Industry.”
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: “Consumption of Low-Calorie Sweeteners among Children and Adults in the United States.”
Allison Sylvetsky, PhD, assistant professor of exercise and nutrition sciences, George Washington University Milken Institute School of Public Health, Washington, D.C.
International Journal of Obesity: “Does low-energy sweetener consumption affect energy intake and body weight? A systematic review, including meta-analyses, of the evidence from human and animal studies.”
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition: “Replacing caloric beverages with water or diet beverages for weight loss in adults: main results of the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial.”
Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism: “Artificial sweeteners produce the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements.”
Physiology & Behavior: “Metabolic effects of non-nutritive sweeteners.”
Diabetes Care: “Changes in Consumption of Sugary Beverages and Artificially Sweetened Beverages and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Results From Three Large Prospective U.S. Cohorts of Women and Men.”
Stroke: “Artificially Sweetened Beverages and Stroke, Coronary Heart Disease, and All-Cause Mortality in the Women’s Health Initiative.”
The New England Journal of Medicine, Journal Watch: “Diet Soft Drink Intake Tied to Stroke, Dementia Risk.”
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: “Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Use of Nutritive and Nonnutritive Sweeteners.”
Debbie Petitpain, registered dietitian nutritionist; media spokesperson, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics; wellness director, Office of Health Promotion, Medical University of South Carolina.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture: “2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 8th Edition.”
Food Surveys Research Group, Dietary Data Brief No. 18: “Added Sugars Intake of Americans: What
We Eat in America, NHANES 2013-2014.”
Sandra Arevalo, registered dietitian nutritionist; media spokesperson, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics; director of community and patient education, Montefiore Nyack Hospital, Nyack, NY.
truvia.com: “Truvia Ingredients.”
Circulation: “Long-Term Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened and Artificially Sweetened Beverages and Risk of Mortality in US Adults.”
Eatright.org: “Are artificial sweeteners safe for kids?”
Healthy Children.org: “Sweeteners and sugar substitutes: Parent FAQs.”